Construction of the questionnaire involved adapting questions from a review of existing literature that had looked at the reasons behind children’s purchases from fast food takeaway outlets.3 , 4 , 15 , 16 Participants were asked to self-report their gender, age, date of birth and ethnicity. 17 Free school meal entitlement was used as a proxy measure of deprivation in our survey, and it is also commonly used to investigate schoolchildren families’ income level.3 , 18 Participants were also asked how often they would purchase food/drinks from fast food takeaway outlet over a week period. Previous studies have also used this type of https://datingranking.net/es/citas-coreanas/ question to define frequency of fast food consumption.3 , 4 Participants were asked to indicate what portion size of chips they would normally purchase. Participants were asked to rank their three most popular types of beverages they would normally purchase. Participants were also asked to report their average level of physical activity during weekends and weekdays on the same questionnaire. Response options include from <2 h, 2–5 h and 5 h or more per day.
A great pilot study of new survey is actually finished with a little test of students (n=30) old a dozen–thirteen decades. Information from the pilot data provided rewording all the questions getting better realized and limit just how many unlock-concluded inquiries. The questionnaire is actually delivered both in schools anywhere between and was done by 193 youngsters. The fresh new survey was created to end up being care about-given. Instructed browse assistants were available to let pupils exactly who required help that have wisdom otherwise training all the questions.
Anthropometric dimensions was in fact built-up by the trained lookup personnel. Top is actually counted on nearby millimetre having fun with SECA Leicester cellphone height scale (stadiometer). The professionals was indeed educated to remove the boots in advance of their peak are drawn in order to make their head on the Frankfurt planes.19 Pounds is actually measured for the nearest 0.step 1 kilogram having fun with calibrated Lbs Watchers Simple Discover Reliability electronic scales (model: 8961U). Players was basically instructed to remove the footwear and you may outerwear, that’s, outdoor coat, and stay within their uniform ahead of these were considered. Self-said specifications was in fact omitted about studies investigation lay while they have been thought to be unsound. Body mass index (BMI) try extracted from measured level and you may lbs of one’s students and calculated by using the after the formulae: Bmi kilogram/m dos = weight (kg)/height2 (metres). Body mass index percentile to own many years and you can sex according to the verified Uk 1990 source investigation charts is actually computed, looking at date of beginning and you will big date regarding measurement.20–23 Percentile ranging from 85th and 95th percentile is defined as over weight and you may ?95th percentile is actually recognized as heavy.24 , twenty-five A hundred and you can twenty-one schoolchildren got finished study to own formula from Body mass index percentile having ages and you can intercourse.
Investigation was in fact analysed having fun with SPSS V. (SPSS Inc.). Efficiency found are either presented once the form ± SD, median (range) or wavelengths (percentages). Mathematical advantages try pulled if p well worth is actually ?0.05. Categorical details was indeed opposed making use of the ? dos ensure that you continued variables with the Kruskal–Wallis attempt.
The mean respondent age was 12.8 (range 11–14) years old and 56% of the respondents were male (table 1). The ethnic background of the study population was mainly Asians (48.3%) and Black/African-Carribeans (19.4%), reflecting the sampling region. Majority of the sampled population (61%) was entitled to free school meals. About one in three respondents (30.6%) was classified as being overweight or obese. Thirty-two per cent of the males were classified as being overweight or obese as compared with 29% of the females. About half of the sampled population (54%) reported that they usually purchased food or drinks from fast food or takeaway outlets more than two to three times a week. About half of the schoolchildren (48%) would spend 2 per visit.